Writing, Curating and Lecturing on Visual Arts, Public Space and Architecture

Tudengid suudlevad üle maailma?

In spring 2022 Viljandi Culture Academy,  Estonian Authors Association and the Estonian Association of the Phonogram Producers organised an intellectual rights campaign. For this cause they initiated a blog which gathers texts about intellectual rights cases in Estonia and abroad. They commissioned me to write an article about the copies made of Mati Karmin's Tartu fountain sculpture in around Russia. Published on 26 April 2022.

Tudengid suudlevad üle maailma?



Tartu sümbol

Skulptor Mati Karmini ja arhitekt Tiit Trummali 1998. aastal valminud purskkaev „Suudlevad tudengid“ näib olevat Tartu Raekoja platsi ilmestanud juba ammu. Tänu tsentraalsele asukohale ja lennukale kujundile on sellest saanud ülikooli peahoone ja Kaarsilla kõrval üks linna põhilisi sümboleid. Kuid asjaolu, et fontäänist on saanud ajaloomälestistega lausa võrdväärne maamärk on ühe selle autori, Mati Karmini mõnevõrra ebasoodsasse olukorda asetanud: purskkaevu osaks olevat tudengite kuju kiputakse kas teadmatusest või pahatahtlikkusest käsitlema mitte autoriõigusega kaitstud teosena, vaid kultuuripärandi hulka kuuluva universaalse taiesena, mis on rahvaloominguna vabalt kasutatav. Tuletagem meelde, et autoriõigusega on kaitstud igasugune originaalne kirjandus-, teadus- ja kunstiteos, mis väljendab autori enda intellektuaalset panust, on väljendatud tajutaval moel (näiteks skulptuurina) ja on reprodutseeritav.

Mati Karminil on tulnud silmitsi seista oma teose kopeerijatega nii Eestis kui ka välismaal. Kohalikud vaidlused on tulenenud sellest, et mõned ettevõtjad on luba küsimata kasutanud tema teose kujutist suveniiridel, ent märksa mastaapsemad intellektuaalomandi vargused on aset leidnud Venemaal. Lisaks sellele, et 2017. aastal avati Peterburi külje all Kudrovos peaaegu üks ühele koopia Tartu purskkaevust, on samast sümbolist inspireeritud skulptuure püstitatud viimastel aastatel mujalgi endise Nõukogude Liidu ala. Allpool selgitan esmalt seda, mis teeb Karmini skulptuurist iseseisva vormiga kunstiteose, ning seejärel avan tema teose kopeerimise temaatikat Venemaal.

 

Iseseisev kunstiteos – autoriõiguse objekt

Mis teeb „Suudlevatest tudengitest“ originaalse teose? Kõige lihtsam vastus on, et see pole ühegi teadaoleva kunstiteose koopia. Küll aga saab Karmini taiese puhul rääkida erinevatest inspiratsiooniallikatest, millega autor võis, aga ei pruukinud tuttav olla. Kui käsitleda teose visuaalse dominandina vihmavarju, siis neid tunti ja kujutati juba Vana-Egiptuses. Meile tuttavaid kergeid sirme hakati tööstuslikult tootma 18. sajandil. Laialdane populaarsus tõi kaasa nende kujutamise ka kunstiteostes. „Suudlevate tudengite“ võtmes mõnevõrra idealiseeritud vihmavarjud said iseäranis populaarseks belle époque’i maalikunstnike seas, olgu näiteks Prantsuse impressionisti Gustave Caillebotte’i õlimaal „Pariisi tänav. Vihmane päev“ (1877) või Tšehhi maalikunstniku Luděk Maroldi õlimaal „Suudlus päikesevarju all“ (1895).

Maroldi puhul võib rääkida otsesest sarnasusest Karmini teosega, kuid kunstilises plaanis on siin olulisem ideeline põlvnemine. 19. ja 20. sajandi vahetuse kunstis näeme, kuidas sirmist kujuneb romantilise tähendusega loor, mis armastajaid ühendab ja pealtvaatajatest eraldab. Ent järgnevate kümnendite jooksul teisenesid moraalinormid kiiresti ja need muutused kajastusid ka visuaalkultuuris. Sajandi keskpaigas said populaarseks fotod, mis kujutasid armunuid märksa uljamalt avalikus kohas suudlemas. Fotograafia ajaloos on üks märgilisemaid näiteid Alfred Eisenstaedti ülesvõte Jaapani alistamise päevast 1945. aastal Times Square’il, kus üks joovastunud meremees suudleb valges kitlis meditsiiniõde, kes suurest üllatusest tasakaalu kaotades oma parema jala välja sirutab. Õige pea muutus seegi rõõmuvalang nostalgiaobjektiks ning sellised kunstnikud nagu Edward Hopper või Jack Vettriano tegid enigmaatiliste ja natuke vuajeristlike stseenide kujutamisest enda leivanumbri, mis leiab tänini austajaid ja järgijaid. Nii väidab üks anonüümne kommentaator, et vihmavarju all suudlevate armastajate kujundi mõtles välja hoopis hilisnõukogude perioodil kunstnikuna alustanud, Vitsebskist pärit Leonid Afremov!

Kõigis neis töödes võib näha Karmini inspiratsiooniallikaid, kuid purskkaev on oma kunstilise lahenduse poolest siiski iseseisev kunstiteos, mida iseloomustavad kahe figuuri dünaamiliselt edasiantud embus, tütarlapse kuraasikalt väljasirutatud parem jalg ning armastajaid kattev ja veelooriga ümbritsev vihmavari, mida noormees hoiab partneri õlale asetatud paremas käes. Teose juurde kuuluvad veel silindrikujuline postament, ümmargune bassein ning seda ümbritsev graniidist äär, millel asetsevad kuplikujulised veesülitid koos valgustitega.

 

Nagu seeni pärast vihma

2017. aastal sai Mati Karmin Venemaa ehitusfirmalt Otdelstroy viisaka kirja, milles talle teatati, et neile on silma jäänud „Suudlevate tudengite“ kuju ning nad sooviksid ka Venemaal ühe elurajooni keskele midagi sarnast püstitada. Küsiti, kas skulptor saaks neile ise koopia valmistada, ning uuriti, kui palju see maksma läheks. Karmini sõnul mõjus kiri sedavõrd absurdselt, et ta jättis sellele vastamata. Tegemist on Tartu sümboliga ja seda ei tohi sellisena kopeerida. Aasta hiljem sai ta juhuslikult teada, et Kudrovosse on siiski püstitatud tema skulptuuri peaaegu täpne koopia – erinevused puudutavad üksnes mõnda detaili, näiteks on kuju peegelpildis. Karmin leidis, et sellises olukorras on ainuõige lahendus lasta koopia hävitada. Kuna vähemalt paberil laienesid tema õigused ka Venemaale, saigi Tartu linna abiga ja rahvusvahelise õigusbüroo kaudu esitatud järelepärimine Otdelstroyle. Skulptori sõnul vastati sealt üsna jämedate ähvardustega, mistõttu pärast Eesti ekspertidega nõupidamist leiti, et kohtuskäimine võib kujuneda mõttetult kulukas ja ilmselt lootusetuks.

Eesti ajakirjanduses lahkas juhtumit Postimees, kuid uudis pälvis tähelepanu ka Vene meedias, kus olukorrast andis ülevaate Venemaa suurim nädalaleht Komsomolskaja Pravda. Sealne ajakirjanik küsis kommentaare nii Otdelstroylt kui ka kohalikult juristide liidu esindajalt, kelle vastused ei olnud just eriti julgustavad. Arendaja seisukoha võib kokku võtta sõnadega „vaba mees vabal maal teeb, mis tahab“. See-eest jurist arutles, et samahästi võiks kogu Las Vegase koopiate pärast arvele võtta ja pealegi on sarnasid skulptuure mujalgi.

Ja tõepoolest – kui kunstnik asja edasi uuris, tuli välja, et endise Nõukogude Liidu territooriumil on viimastel aastatel püstitatud vähemalt kaheksa skulptuuri, mille puhul saab rääkida Karmini teose tugevast tsiteerimisest või lausa otsesest kopeerimisest. Kõige sarnasem on Feodossijas juba 2017. aastal avatud „Armastuse purskkaev“, teose valmistanud Moskva tehas LitArt nimetab selle autoriks skulptor Irina Makarovat. Kudrovo ja Feodossija skulptuuride puhul on kopeerimine ilmne, ent mõnevõrra hiljem valminud purskkaevusid Kirovis, Hersonis ja Moskvas on Tartu teosega võrreldes piisavalt palju edasi arendatud, et neid saab Karmini teose koopiateks nimetada vaid tinglikult. Õigem oleks öelda, et need on koopia koopia koopiad või siis tõepoolest rahvalooming. Veelgi hilisemast ajast pärit „Suudlevate tudengite“ kauged sugulased Lõuna-Osseetias, Thbilisis ja Omskis mõjuvad aga juba niivõrd groteskselt, et võiks arvata, et see jaburuseks kujunenud trend on Venemaal oma loomuliku lõpu leidnud.

Viimased näited mõjuvad küll koomiliselt, kuid me ei tohi ära unustada ebameeldivusi ja varalist kahju, mida see olukord on kunstnikule põhjustanud. Mida sellest õppida? Mis oleks juhtunud, kui Karmin oleks Otdelstroy kirjale vastanud? Seda ei saa me kunagi teada, aga võib oletada, et dialoogi huvides tasub autoritel sellistele arupärimistele siiski vastata. Ent nähes, kuidas Venemaal rahvusvahelisele õigusele üha enam vilistatakse ning liigutakse tagasi Nõukogude Liidule omase riikliku piraatluse suunas, on karta, et olukord läheb kunstnike jaoks, kelle autoriõigust rikutakse, pigem hullemaks.

 


Kasutatud allikad:

  1. https://peegel.ut.ee/numbrid/nr-30/ah-oigus-autorioigus

  2. https://yandex.ru/maps/org/fontan_potseluy/200466245535/?ll=30.508635%2C59.915618&z=16

  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustave_Caillebotte#/media/File:Gustave_Caillebotte_-_Paris_Street;_Rainy_Day_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg

  4. https://www.artplus.cz/cs/aukcni-zpravodajstvi/1/marold-a-starozitnosti

  5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V-J_Day_in_Times_Square

  6. https://www.pinterest.com/pin/326018460496571422/

  7. https://www.fotex.biz/countries/estonia/tartu/3727002020/; https://afremov.com/

  8. https://www.postimees.ee/6258288/vene-linn-varastas-tartult-suudlevad-tudengid

  9. Autori telefonivestlus Mati Karminiga, 4. IV 2022.

  10.  Laialdaste sanktsioonide tõttu, mis kehtestati Venemaale pärast 2022. aasta veebruaris Ukrainasse tungimist, otsustas Venemaa ühe vastumeetmena astuda välja rahvusvahelistest intellektuaalomandiga seotud suhteid reguleerivatest kokkulepetest. Vt näiteks https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2022/03/09/russia-allows-patent-theft/.

  11. Autori telefonivestlus Mati Karminiga, 4. IV 2022.

  12.  https://www.postimees.ee/6258288/vene-linn-varastas-tartult-suudlevad-tudengid; https://tartu.postimees.ee/6400907/mati-karmin-suudlevate-tudengite-kopeerimine-on-puhas-matslus; https://www.postimees.ee/6408456/vene-firma-oigustab-tartu-sumboli-vargust-kohtus

  13. https://www.spb.kp.ru/daily/26880/3923735/

  14. https://litart.ru/fontan-para-pod-zontom-v-feodosii/

  15. https://makarova-art.ru/en

  16. https://www.newsler.ru/society/2018/07/23/vlyublennye-pod-zontom-uzhe-raduyut-glaz-v-skvere-alye-parusa

  17. https://art-kazachenko.com/skulptura/fontany

  18. https://uv-kurier.ru/2019/08/08/v-yuzhnoportovom-otkryli-odin-iz-samyh-romantichnyh-fontanov-goroda/

  19. https://www.zontshop.ru/blog/fontan-s-zontom.html

  20. https://ru.dreamstime.com/%D1%81%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%BE%D0%B5-%D1%84%D0%BE%D1%82%D0%BE-%D0%BF%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%8B-%D0%BF%D0%BE-%D0%BE%D0%B6-%D0%B5%D0%BC-%D0%B2-%D1%82%D0%B1%D0%B8-%D0%B8%D1%81%D0%B8-image95522964

  21. https://omskzdes.ru/society/64844.html



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May 30, 2024
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Hello people, I am Sarah Silverman an Actress from Independent films in the USA. I highly recommend the service of Lost Recovery Masters to everyone who wishes to recover lost money either bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies from these online scammers, wallet hackers, or if you ever sent bitcoins to the wrong wallet address. I was able to recover my lost bitcoins from online swindlers in less than 24 hours after contacting them. They are the best professional hackers out there and I’m truly thankful for their help in recovering all I lost. If you need their service too, here is their contact information.

Email: Support@lostrecoverymasters.com
Website https://lostrecoverymasters.com/
May 30, 2024
Sarah Sliverman FINALLY I GOT MY LOST BITCOIN BACK ALL THANKS TO LOST RECOVERY-MASTERS

Hello people, I am Sarah Silverman an Actress from Independent films in the USA. I highly recommend the service of Lost Recovery Masters to everyone who wishes to recover lost money either bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies from these online scammers, wallet hackers, or if you ever sent bitcoins to the wrong wallet address. I was able to recover my lost bitcoins from online swindlers in less than 24 hours after contacting them. They are the best professional hackers out there and I’m truly thankful for their help in recovering all I lost. If you need their service too, here is their contact information.

Email: Support@lostrecoverymasters.com
Website https://lostrecoverymasters.com/
May 30, 2024
Sarah Sliverman FINALLY I GOT MY LOST BITCOIN BACK ALL THANKS TO LOST RECOVERY-MASTERS

Hello people, I am Sarah Silverman an Actress from Independent films in the USA. I highly recommend the service of Lost Recovery Masters to everyone who wishes to recover lost money either bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies from these online scammers, wallet hackers, or if you ever sent bitcoins to the wrong wallet address. I was able to recover my lost bitcoins from online swindlers in less than 24 hours after contacting them. They are the best professional hackers out there and I’m truly thankful for their help in recovering all I lost. If you need their service too, here is their contact information.

Email: Support@lostrecoverymasters.com
Website https://lostrecoverymasters.com/
May 30, 2024
Sarah Sliverman FINALLY I GOT MY LOST BITCOIN BACK ALL THANKS TO LOST RECOVERY-MASTERS

Hello people, I am Sarah Silverman an Actress from Independent films in the USA. I highly recommend the service of Lost Recovery Masters to everyone who wishes to recover lost money either bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies from these online scammers, wallet hackers, or if you ever sent bitcoins to the wrong wallet address. I was able to recover my lost bitcoins from online swindlers in less than 24 hours after contacting them. They are the best professional hackers out there and I’m truly thankful for their help in recovering all I lost. If you need their service too, here is their contact information.

Email: Support@lostrecoverymasters.com
Website https://lostrecoverymasters.com/
May 30, 2024
Sarah Sliverman FINALLY I GOT MY LOST BITCOIN BACK ALL THANKS TO LOST RECOVERY-MASTERS

Hello people, I am Sarah Silverman an Actress from Independent films in the USA. I highly recommend the service of Lost Recovery Masters to everyone who wishes to recover lost money either bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies from these online scammers, wallet hackers, or if you ever sent bitcoins to the wrong wallet address. I was able to recover my lost bitcoins from online swindlers in less than 24 hours after contacting them. They are the best professional hackers out there and I’m truly thankful for their help in recovering all I lost. If you need their service too, here is their contact information.

Email: Support@lostrecoverymasters.com
Website https://lostrecoverymasters.com/
May 30, 2024
Sarah Sliverman FINALLY I GOT MY LOST BITCOIN BACK ALL THANKS TO LOST RECOVERY-MASTERS

Hello people, I am Sarah Silverman an Actress from Independent films in the USA. I highly recommend the service of Lost Recovery Masters to everyone who wishes to recover lost money either bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies from these online scammers, wallet hackers, or if you ever sent bitcoins to the wrong wallet address. I was able to recover my lost bitcoins from online swindlers in less than 24 hours after contacting them. They are the best professional hackers out there and I’m truly thankful for their help in recovering all I lost. If you need their service too, here is their contact information.

Email: Support@lostrecoverymasters.com
Website https://lostrecoverymasters.com/
May 30, 2024
Sarah Sliverman FINALLY I GOT MY LOST BITCOIN BACK ALL THANKS TO LOST RECOVERY-MASTERS

Hello people, I am Sarah Silverman an Actress from Independent films in the USA. I highly recommend the service of Lost Recovery Masters to everyone who wishes to recover lost money either bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies from these online scammers, wallet hackers, or if you ever sent bitcoins to the wrong wallet address. I was able to recover my lost bitcoins from online swindlers in less than 24 hours after contacting them. They are the best professional hackers out there and I’m truly thankful for their help in recovering all I lost. If you need their service too, here is their contact information.

Email: Support@lostrecoverymasters.com
Website https://lostrecoverymasters.com/
May 30, 2024
Sarah Sliverman FINALLY I GOT MY LOST BITCOIN BACK ALL THANKS TO LOST RECOVERY-MASTERS

Hello people, I am Sarah Silverman an Actress from Independent films in the USA. I highly recommend the service of Lost Recovery Masters to everyone who wishes to recover lost money either bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies from these online scammers, wallet hackers, or if you ever sent bitcoins to the wrong wallet address. I was able to recover my lost bitcoins from online swindlers in less than 24 hours after contacting them. They are the best professional hackers out there and I’m truly thankful for their help in recovering all I lost. If you need their service too, here is their contact information.

Email: Support@lostrecoverymasters.com
Website https://lostrecoverymasters.com/
May 30, 2024
Sarah Sliverman FINALLY I GOT MY LOST BITCOIN BACK ALL THANKS TO LOST RECOVERY-MASTERS

Hello people, I am Sarah Silverman an Actress from Independent films in the USA. I highly recommend the service of Lost Recovery Masters to everyone who wishes to recover lost money either bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies from these online scammers, wallet hackers, or if you ever sent bitcoins to the wrong wallet address. I was able to recover my lost bitcoins from online swindlers in less than 24 hours after contacting them. They are the best professional hackers out there and I’m truly thankful for their help in recovering all I lost. If you need their service too, here is their contact information.

Email: Support@lostrecoverymasters.com
Website https://lostrecoverymasters.com/
May 30, 2024
Sarah Sliverman FINALLY I GOT MY LOST BITCOIN BACK ALL THANKS TO LOST RECOVERY-MASTERS

Hello people, I am Sarah Silverman an Actress from Independent films in the USA. I highly recommend the service of Lost Recovery Masters to everyone who wishes to recover lost money either bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies from these online scammers, wallet hackers, or if you ever sent bitcoins to the wrong wallet address. I was able to recover my lost bitcoins from online swindlers in less than 24 hours after contacting them. They are the best professional hackers out there and I’m truly thankful for their help in recovering all I lost. If you need their service too, here is their contact information.

Email: Support@lostrecoverymasters.com
Website https://lostrecoverymasters.com/
May 30, 2024
Sarah Sliverman FINALLY I GOT MY LOST BITCOIN BACK ALL THANKS TO LOST RECOVERY-MASTERS

Hello people, I am Sarah Silverman an Actress from Independent films in the USA. I highly recommend the service of Lost Recovery Masters to everyone who wishes to recover lost money either bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies from these online scammers, wallet hackers, or if you ever sent bitcoins to the wrong wallet address. I was able to recover my lost bitcoins from online swindlers in less than 24 hours after contacting them. They are the best professional hackers out there and I’m truly thankful for their help in recovering all I lost. If you need their service too, here is their contact information.

Email: Support@lostrecoverymasters.com
Website https://lostrecoverymasters.com/
May 30, 2024
Sarah Sliverman FINALLY I GOT MY LOST BITCOIN BACK ALL THANKS TO LOST RECOVERY-MASTERS

Hello people, I am Sarah Silverman an Actress from Independent films in the USA. I highly recommend the service of Lost Recovery Masters to everyone who wishes to recover lost money either bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies from these online scammers, wallet hackers, or if you ever sent bitcoins to the wrong wallet address. I was able to recover my lost bitcoins from online swindlers in less than 24 hours after contacting them. They are the best professional hackers out there and I’m truly thankful for their help in recovering all I lost. If you need their service too, here is their contact information.

Email: Support@lostrecoverymasters.com
Website https://lostrecoverymasters.com/
May 30, 2024
Sarah Sliverman FINALLY I GOT MY LOST BITCOIN BACK ALL THANKS TO LOST RECOVERY-MASTERS

Hello people, I am Sarah Silverman an Actress from Independent films in the USA. I highly recommend the service of Lost Recovery Masters to everyone who wishes to recover lost money either bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies from these online scammers, wallet hackers, or if you ever sent bitcoins to the wrong wallet address. I was able to recover my lost bitcoins from online swindlers in less than 24 hours after contacting them. They are the best professional hackers out there and I’m truly thankful for their help in recovering all I lost. If you need their service too, here is their contact information.

Email: Support@lostrecoverymasters.com
Website https://lostrecoverymasters.com/
May 30, 2024
Sarah Sliverman FINALLY I GOT MY LOST BITCOIN BACK ALL THANKS TO LOST RECOVERY-MASTERS

Hello people, I am Sarah Silverman an Actress from Independent films in the USA. I highly recommend the service of Lost Recovery Masters to everyone who wishes to recover lost money either bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies from these online scammers, wallet hackers, or if you ever sent bitcoins to the wrong wallet address. I was able to recover my lost bitcoins from online swindlers in less than 24 hours after contacting them. They are the best professional hackers out there and I’m truly thankful for their help in recovering all I lost. If you need their service too, here is their contact information.

Email: Support@lostrecoverymasters.com
Website https://lostrecoverymasters.com/
May 30, 2024
Sarah Sliverman FINALLY I GOT MY LOST BITCOIN BACK ALL THANKS TO LOST RECOVERY-MASTERS

Hello people, I am Sarah Silverman an Actress from Independent films in the USA. I highly recommend the service of Lost Recovery Masters to everyone who wishes to recover lost money either bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies from these online scammers, wallet hackers, or if you ever sent bitcoins to the wrong wallet address. I was able to recover my lost bitcoins from online swindlers in less than 24 hours after contacting them. They are the best professional hackers out there and I’m truly thankful for their help in recovering all I lost. If you need their service too, here is their contact information.

Email: Support@lostrecoverymasters.com
Website https://lostrecoverymasters.com/
May 30, 2024
Sarah Sliverman FINALLY I GOT MY LOST BITCOIN BACK ALL THANKS TO LOST RECOVERY-MASTERS

Hello people, I am Sarah Silverman an Actress from Independent films in the USA. I highly recommend the service of Lost Recovery Masters to everyone who wishes to recover lost money either bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies from these online scammers, wallet hackers, or if you ever sent bitcoins to the wrong wallet address. I was able to recover my lost bitcoins from online swindlers in less than 24 hours after contacting them. They are the best professional hackers out there and I’m truly thankful for their help in recovering all I lost. If you need their service too, here is their contact information.

Email: Support@lostrecoverymasters.com
Website https://lostrecoverymasters.com/
May 30, 2024